Dutch military missions have sought to intervene in wars to protect civilians against violence and/or fight terrorism in the name of self-defence. Although often carried out in terms of humanitarianism, such missions have also failed to protect civilians, leading to public and political debates on responsibility, legitimacy, and redress. The most exemplifying case is the fall of Srebrenica, Bosnia and Herzegovina in 1995, when Dutch troops under UN mandate failed to protect Bosnian Muslims from genocide. Until today, Bosnian civilians and Dutch veterans alike are seeking justice for their (ongoing) suffering. How are justice practices allocated by the Dutch state perceived by Bosnians and Dutch veterans? And what is to learn from the case of Bosnia for recent Dutch failures to protect in Iraq?